An official with the National Iranian Drilling Company said the company’s drillings of oil and gas wells have hit over 132,000 meters during the past 10 months.
According to Shana, Mohammad Al-Khamis, the company’s drilling operations deputy, said that the record was registered since the beginning of the current calendar year, which began on March 21, and entailed 96 wells.
Among the wells were 35 development/appraisal wells, 2 exploration wells and 59 workover operations.
He said 70 wells were spudded in the fields operated by the National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC), 13 were drilled in offshore field operated by the Iranian Offshore Oil Company (IOOC), 2 wells were ordered by the Iranian Central Oilfields Company, 3 were ordered by the Petroleum Engineering and Development Company (PEDEC), 6 were drilled as projects and 2 others were ordered by the Exploration Department of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC).
“In the past 10 months, as a result of the efforts and synergy with the applicant companies, the NIDC’s employees drilled 9 oil and gas wells 89 days ahead of the plans,” he said
Some incentive such as visa waiver, 90-day visa on arrival, standard residence services, attractive tourism routes and packages, and cheapest and most secure tours to Iran along with the last international tourism standards have enabled us to experience a 53% growth in our inbound tourism, winning the first place in the world in this regard. In addition, when it comes to the prices, Iran has the most competitive prices for tourism in the world and has emerged as a new phenomenon in the world of tourism, attracting the attention of many countries,” the statement added.
Emphasizing the country enjoys full security to host tourists, Iran’s Tourism Minister Ali-Asghar Mounesan, invited tourists across the world to experience a unique journey to the land of history and civilization, especially during the spring. In a statement released on Saturday, Mounesan said, “Nowadays, the world is even more involved in fast and surprising upheavals and ups and downs as a result of unprecedented progress in technology and industry. As such, the modern human is also influenced by urban, mechanical life and his soul needs some refinement and relief.
In such a situation, only travel and tourism can give us relief, joy, and sympathy and provide us with unforgettable experiences and memorable coexistence. In fact, tourism can be thought of as a familial or friendly gathering, the pivotal contents of which are kindness, cooperation, and synergy. In this chaotic era, tourists are like a delightful breeze endearing our souls and uniting all the people from around the world, regardless of their race, country, language, and beliefs.”
“With a deep and practical faith in this attitude, the Iranian government is trying its best to pave the way for incoming tourists and this is why there is a significant growth in tourism infrastructure in our country. In this regard, some incentive such as visa waiver, 90-day visa on arrival, standard residence services, attractive tourism routes and packages, and cheapest and most secure tours to Iran along with the last international tourism standards have enabled us to experience a 53% growth in our inbound tourism, winning the first place in the world in this regard. In addition, when it comes to the prices, Iran has the most competitive prices for tourism in the world and has emerged as a new phenomenon in the world of tourism, attracting the attention of many countries,” the statement added. “Even if we disregard all that has been said, the unique tourist attractions of Iran are a good reason to have a journey to the land of history, civilization, and nature. With 24 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 34,000 Nationally Registered Heritages and 600 active museums, Iran has a huge capacity to receive international tourists. In addition, high security, cheap tours, premium travel facilities, hospitable people, numerous historic and natural treasures, unique ecotourism facilities, diverse tourism packages (historic-cultural tourism, sport tourism, marine tourism, food tourism, medical tourism, etc.), interesting rituals, and diverse handicrafts and traditional arts provide enough reasons to visit Iran,” he said.
“The rich history and civilization of this land, the numerous and spectacular tourist attractions, four-season weather, and high cultural and ethnic diversity have made an invaluable treasure of Iran and put this country in the top 10 tourist destinations in terms of tourism, cultural and natural attractions. Astonishing mountains, breathtaking glaciers, beautiful volcanos, pristine forests, green foothills, delightful lakes, springs and waterfalls, picturesque beaches and wonderful islands, historical sites and distinct architecture, globally registered cities and villages, diverse and colorful handicrafts, delicious traditional cuisine and organic, healing drinks, etc. are only a small part of the beauties you can visit while staying in Iran.” He noted, “With such advantages, each day the beautiful and safe cities of Iran are hosting thousands of tourists from different countries, having enjoyed the unique experience, most of whom decide to return and bring new fellow travelers with them. Hereby I invite all the tourists from around the world to visit Iran during these last months of the Persian year, as well as the spring, and experience a distinct journey to the land of history and civilization. A country-size guesthouse is wholeheartedly ready to receive tourists from around the world.”
Following the Iranian missile strikes targeting US forces in Iraq, as well as the accidental downing of Ukrainian passenger jet near Tehran, several major airlines have rerouted or canceled flights in the region.
But some days later after these incidents, Qatar Airways, Emirates and several other regional airlines, including Kuwait Airways and Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways have continued using Iranian and Iraqi airspace.
KLM airline also made an announcement on Thursday that it would resume flights over the Iranian and Iraqi skies.
“KLM uses a security management system to analyze risks and thus determine safe flight paths. Substantiated by such analyses, it is once again safe to fly over Iran and Iraq,” the statement said.
Some travel agencies also announced that they would continue to make trips to Iran.
The incident came hours after Iran fired ballistic missiles at two American military bases in neighboring Iraq to respond to the US assassination of a senior Iranian military commander in the Arab country earlier this month.
Iran introduces tourism capacities in Madrid fair
Iranian tourism officials held a special session at the 40th International Tourism Fair in Madrid (FITUR) on Friday to introduce the country’s tourism attractions.
Iran’s Ambassador to Spain Hassan Ghashghavi, who was present at the meeting, referred to the remarkable capacities of the two countries for cooperation in the fields of tourism and handicrafts, voicing Iran’s readiness for promoting collaboration in those spheres.
Referring to the 50% growth in the number of Spanish tourists to Iran over the past year, Ghashghavi said that Iran is among the top ten countries in terms of tourism attractions diversity.
The envoy said the promotion of the tourism industry is high on the Iranian government’s agenda, noting that given the capabilities of Spain in this sector, the issue can serve as one of the areas of cooperation between Tehran and Madrid.
The meeting was also attended by two Spanish tourists who explained their experience of visiting Iran. The two hailed Iranians’ hospitality and the country’s high security despite the anti-Iran propaganda.
Iran petrochemical industry dates back to 1963. The first petrochemical
complex to produce fertilizer kicked off then. The first major
petrochemical operation in Iran was the Shiraz Petrochemical Complex.
Iran has a diversified petroleum product basket with more than 70
products. The main exports are polyethylene, methanol, benzene, ammonia,
sulfur, PVC and propylene.
Iran Petrochemical Industry Output to Hit $25bln by 2021
“Iran’s petrochemical production capacity would cross 100 mt/y by 2021,” Minister Zangeneh said, addressing the opening ceremony of the 13th Iran Plast International Exhibition on 23 September 2019. He noted that the petrochemical production capacity of the country would reach 130 mt/y by 2025 valued at $37 billion. “Iran’s ethane production capacity would reach 16 million tons per year by 2021 from 4.2 mt/y back in 2013. The items’ current production capacity is 7.3 mt/y,” Zangeneh added. The Iranian oil minister noted that 27 projects would come on stream in the country by 2021. In relevant remarks on Sunday, Head of the National Petrochemical Company of Iran Behzad Mohammadi announced that his country will inaugurate 27 new petrochemical complexes by early 2022. Mohammadi said that Iran would increase the number of its petrochemical complexes to 83, from the current 56, by early 2022, adding that both production and the feed used for those complexes would significantly diversify in the coming years. He added that the Iran had extensive plans for expansion of refining and petrochemical activity, adding that government and private investment in the sector would top 70 billion in the next two years. Mohammadi noted that the size of investment in downstream sections of the oil and gas industry, where petrochemicals are produced and marketed, would reach $93 billion by 2025 He said the proportion of gas to liquefied feed burnt in the refineries would change from the current 77-23 to 86-14 by 2025, mainly thanks to plans for collecting flared gas at oil and gas facilities. The official said Iran had invested around half a billion dollars in research and development for manufacturing catalysts used in the refining process, adding that 16 groups of high-tech devices needed in the industry were currently produced inside Iran and a group of nine others were expected to be covered by the domestic production by 2022. Mohammadi estimated that jobs created in Iran’s petrochemical sector, including those on the supply chain, was around one million, adding that around 880,000 people were currently working in 15,000 enterprises active in the industry’s downstream section. Mohammadi had said that the petrochemical industry of Iran has focused on domestic manufacturers and contractors in implementing its projects. “The National Petrochemical Company (NPC) is seeking to ensure the maximized involvement of domestic manufacturers and contractors in petrochemical projects,” he said. He noted that the petrochemical industry has currently received about 33 million tons of feedstock, equivalent to 650,000 barrels of oil per day, which was supplied from oil and gas refineries and NGL units. “About 56 petrochemical plants of the country yielded 31 million tons of finished products annually, of which 22.5 million tons were exported and 8.5 million tons were consumed domestically,” Mohammadi said. The total value of petrochemical products from domestic sales and exports has hit $17 billion annually.
The energy affairs magazine quoted a senior source who was linked to the Iranian Oil Ministry, as stating that this enormous investment represents a key point in a new agreement, worth $400, inked between the two countries. This was confirmed during Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif’s visit to China in late August, to present a roadmap for the strategic comprehensive partnership agreement, which concluded in 2016.
China’s investment in Iranian oil and gas industry has been put at the focal attention amid trade war between China and US and tight competition of these two countries concurrent with the US sanctions imposed on Iran.
Accordingly, this investment will be made as a solution for bypassing and circumventing US sanctions by Chinese companies.
Lut Desert is a resort to sun-loving tourists coming to Iran among the other well-known natural sight-seeings favorite place for foreign tourists.
The Lut Desert, has been put on the United Nations list three years ago and is capable of flourishing as a major Iranian tourist resort.
Iran’s Lut Desert was registered on United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) natural heritage list in 2016 when the 40th meeting of the body was underway in Istanbul.
It was the first natural resorts of the country on the list where Iran already had other 19 cultural heritage sites. The stunning desert lies on the southeastern Iran, straddling the country’s three South Khorasan, Sistan-Baluchestan, and Kerman provinces.
Spanning an area of 22,780 square meters, Lut is comprised of dunes, yardangs, nabkhas, hammadas, and basaltic plateau, each with unique spectacular landscapes that rarely can be find in other parts of the world.
Director of Global Heritage of Lute Desert base in South Khorasan Province, Zahra Rezaei, told IRNA that some 10,000 foreign and local tourists visit the various sites of the desert, and the nearby villages.
Various research projects have been funded to be conducted on the flora and fauna, as well as geology of the Lut Desert, she said.
The ecotourism is one market for the region that can be promoted as a result of presenting the desert to the world. The Lut Desert embraces one of the hottest places in the world, Gandom Beryan. Due to the extreme weather and lack of water, the desert is almost desolate, and therefore, it has remained almost untapped.
To reach the desert, tourists have to travel along date palm gardens in Kerman Province, and pass through yardangs, a phenomenon that is created naturally by unidirectional strong winds, that foster the illusion of abandoned castle debris to the viewers.
They will also be lucky to visit the galleries of multi-decade-year-old qanats that have been used for transferring water from underground to the surface; the mind-boggling innovation of Iranians in the ancient time to efficiently manage the scarce sources of water in the heart of desert.
With development of ecotourism residences in the villages around the desert, Lut has become a main attraction for international tourists. Visitors, at the residences, will also enjoy a totally different environment with new tasty dishes specific to the Iranian desert region.
Lying down on the moving sands for hours into the night, gazing at the magnificent view of the desert night sky dotted by stars is another joy that tourists can experience over their stay in Lut Desert.
Most attention is paid to the Lightworld, which teaches that in the world above the supreme First Life lives and the true home lies above in the light. The supreme First Life is also known as the King of Greatness or the King of Light.
Historical Background Mandaeans are also known as Sabian (in the Qur`an) and Subbi/Sobbi (in Arabic). Iranian Mandaeans speak Persian (Farsi) in addition to a localized Arabic dialect similar to the Arabic spoken in the southern region of Iraq.
Early scholars of the 1920s (M.J. Lagrange, R. Bultmann, Dane V. Schou-Pedersen, E. Yamauchi) debate the origin of Mandaeans, proposing them to be Jewish baptizing sects, Christian, or Babylonian – all in the Jordan area. More recently, Jacobsen Buckley argues that “…a consensus, based on linguistic and historical research, puts Mandaeism back into its original, “heretical” Jewish baptist milieu.” This argument is based on the linguist specialists’ argument based on the language used in their religious texts and the time and religious environment of John’s gospel. Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley firmly believes that Mandaeism never had a Christian stage. Popular legends describe Mandaean migrations. Buckley states that Mandaeans moved from their homeland under the protection of Ardban the Parthian King in the first century of CE, perhaps during the time of Ardban III.
Currently, Mandaeans live next to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq as well as the Karoon River in the southern region of Iran (Khozestan), in the cities of Khorramshahr, Abadan, Ahvaz, Shushtar, Dezful, Shush, Chogha Zambil, and Howeizeh.
Mandaean Religious Beliefs The religion is mostly classified with Gnosticism with certain elements such as yarna (running water), Kushta (truth), and Manda (knowledge) are directly connected to the religion’s Western origins. Mandaeans believe in Yahya, which is the prophet, John the Baptist. “Early on, the religion clearly experiences more or less hostile contacts with various forms of Christianity and becomes acquainted with Babylonian remnants, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and other religions.” These influences and contacts with various religions that existed at the time of the Mandaean migration to Iranian regions are evident through direct borrowing of Manichaean hymns that are translated from Mandaean poetry. They believe that Miriai (Mary, mother of Jesus) becomes pregnant by witchcraft or by another man who is not her husband. The Jewess Miriai is a Mandaean. Mandaeans believe that they are former Jews, and the language in the Talmud is the language of Babylonia that is very close to classical Mandaic (the language of Mandaeans). Miriai is a heroine but her son Jesus deviated from the truth and his Mandaean heritage. Mandaeans also believe that the punishment of the Jews is deserved. The Mandaean holy book is called Ginza (treasure). It is separated into a right (Ginza Right/GR), and a left (Ginza Left/ GL).
GR contains materials, mostly in poetic style, related to the soul’s ascent to the Lightworld. GR is believed to be the oldest surviving text. When turning the Ginza upside down, one can read the GL, which deals with the fate of the soul when the body dies. Among other matters (such as the destiny of the soul, prayers), it contains the story of the first man who died, Adam’s son Sitil. The Mandaean story of creation has three different levels: the upper, Lightworld which is heavenly known as alama d-nhura or the world of light, a middle world which is the earthly world of human inhabitants known as Tibil, and the third world that is the dark and gloomy underworld. Most attention is paid to the Lightworld, which teaches that in the world above the supreme First Life lives and the true home lies above in the light. The supreme First Life is also known as the King of Greatness or the King of Light. Mandaean scripture describes two models of creation of the world: the first is an emanation model of creation and the second model is based upon the opposing poles of the Lightworld and the Darkworld. Buckley states that “…the emanation model is by far the most common, and the sheer mass of variations in the creation mythology makes it impossible to appoint one[,] specific version as ‘the original.’” Inhabitants of the Lightworld are known as utras (angels, guardians), who were involved in creation of the dark and light worlds and they continue to look after the earthly and Lightworld and keep in touch with Mandaeans of earth. The Lightworld sent prayers and all forms of rituals by the forces of light to be taught to the Mandaeans. Thus, the human world and the rituals and prayers connect the Lightworld. Therefore, the Mandaean must be concerned about how to live his life in Tibil, the earth, and how to die in order to receive a proper ascent to the Lightworld. The rituals connected with the Mandaean religion are complex and time consuming and a number of them cannot be performed by a lay person and require the assistance of a priest.
Status of Mandaeans in Iran Mandaeans enjoyed protection by the kings during the later part of the Iranian Dynasty of Ashkanian, who ruled from 248 B.C.E. until their overthrow by the Sassanid Dynasty in C.E. 224). However, during the reign of the Sasanid ruler Bahram I in 273 C.E., religious persecutions were carried out regularly. Mani is executed in the early stages of Bahram I rule. The Zoroastrian high priest Karter suppressed followers of other religions such as Mandaeans, Manichaeans, Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Buddhists. “During these dangerous years, one might surmise a consolidation of Mandaean literature in an attempt to rescue and codify the religion.” At the early stages of the Islamic expansion, Mandaeans showed the Muslim authorities their holy book Ginza and proclaimed that John the Baptist was their prophet. This was crucial for Mandaeans to receive protection by their Muslim rulers, because they were aware that a holy book and a prophet are essential to gain the status of “People of the Book” (ahl al Kitab). In addition, Mandaeans cite the Qur`an for their existence in the holy scripture of Muslims. They are mentioned by the name of Sabians (II: 62, and V:72):
Those who believe (in the Qur`an),
And those who follow the Jewish (scriptures),
And the Christians and the Sabians ,
Any who believe in God
And the Last Day,
And work righteousness,
Shall have their reward.
Mandaeans enjoyed prosperity and freedom to practice their religion. Many scribal activities and collections of Mandaean texts exist at this time (mid 7th CE).
Mandaeans’ status as people of the book came into question throughout their history living in Iran. For example, Mandaeans under Qajar rule in the 1780s experienced difficulties by the Shah’s local representatives by throwing them into wells where they drowned. In addition to loss of lives due to cruelty of the local authorities, later in 1830 half of the inhabitants of the city lost their lives to the great cholera epidemic known as the Plague of Shushtar.
The most recent wars and crises in Iran and Iraq have caused migrations of large numbers of Mandaeans from both Iran and Iraq to the Western world. The Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) as well the Gulf War of 1991 are responsible for a large population of Mandaeans dispersion around the world.
Varying statistics about Mandaean numbers range from 15,000-100,000 with the largest population still living in Iraq. Claiming religious persecution, non-recognition of their religion by the government of Iran, discrimination and exclusion from the normal protections of the law, a significant number of Iranian Mandaeans have fled to Australia.
Religious persecution in Iran, based on measured assessments, is on record by Amnesty International, including the following: in Iran all religious minorities, including Christians and Jews, suffer varying degrees of persecution, vis a vis the Shi’ite Muslim majority. The State, for example, does not permit non-Muslims to engage in government employment or to attend the university. And there are restrictions on the extent to which they can fully practice their religion, such as, for example, teaching it publicly. If injured or killed, Mandaeans or their dependents receive less compensation than would the Muslim majority, and they may suffer in assessments of their credibility as witnesses before Iranian courts. In recent years, Mandaeans who worked in any business requiring direct contact with food (such as cooking or baking or selling food items) have lost their jobs because they are viewed as “unclean” people. The discrimination against Mandaeans has increased since the start of Islamic Republic (1978).
On the 971st birth anniversary of renowned Persian mathematician, poet, philosopher, and astronomer Omar Khayyam people gathered at his mausoleum in Neyshabur in northeast Iran and paid tribute to him by setting flowers on his grave.
Who is Omar Khayyam
Lived 1048 – 1131.
Omar Khayyam’s full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abu’l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami. Khayyam studied philosophy at Naishapur. He lived in a time that did not make life easy for learned men unless they had the support of a ruler at one of the many courts. However Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician and astronomer and he did write several works including Problems of Arithmetic, a book on music, and one on algebra before he was 25 years old.
In the year 1072 AD, Omar Khayyam documented the most accurate year length ever calculated – a figure still accurate enough for most purposes in the modern world. Khayyam was an astronomer, astrologer, physician, philosopher, and mathematician: he made outstanding contributions in algebra. His poetry is better known in the West than any other non-Western poet.
The man himself remains something of an enigma. Different biographers
have documented him as a fun-loving, wine-drinking agnostic; a closet
Zoroastrian; a Sufi Muslim; an orthodox Sunni Moslem; and a follower of
Ancient Greek philosophy. All agree that he was an outstanding
Omar Khayyam was born on May 18, 1048 in the great trading city of
Nishapur in northern Persia. Today the city is in Iran. Omar’s father
was Ebrahim Khayyami, a wealthy physician. Omar’s mother’s name is not
known. Some authors have written that Omar’s father earned a living
making tents because Khayyami means tent-maker. However, although many
English-speakers are named Smith, it does not mean their fathers spent
their days hammering hot metal on an anvil.
Omar’s family were Muslims. His father seems to have been relaxed
about religion, employing a mathematician by the name of Bahmanyar bin
Marzban, a devotee of the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism, to
tutor Omar. Bahmanyar had been a student of the great physician,
scientist, and philosopher Avicenna, and he gave Omar a thorough
education in science, philosophy, and mathematics. Khawjah al-Anbari
taught Omar astronomy, guiding him through Ptolemy’s Almagest.
In his early teens Omar worked in his father’s surgery learning about medicine.
Omar Khayyam celebrated his eighteenth birthday in 1066. In the same
year, Halley’s comet appeared in the heavens, William the Conqueror’s
Norman Army invaded England, and Omar’s father Ebrahim died. A few
months after Ebrahim’s death, Omar’s tutor Bahmanyar also died.
It was the end of an era in Omar Khayyam’s life. It was time to put his family’s affairs in order and move on.
Omar Khayyam joined one of the regular caravans making a three month
journey from Nishapur to the great city of Samarkand, which is now in
Uzbekistan. Samarkand was a center of scholarship, and Khayyam arrived
there probably in 1068, aged 20.
In Samarkand he made contact with his father’s old friend Abu Tahir,
who was governor and chief judge of the city. Tahir, observing Khayyam’s
extraordinary talent with numbers, gave him a job in his office. Soon
Khayyam was given a job in the king’s treasury.
While living in Samarkand, Khayyam made a major advance in algebra.
Omar Khayyam’s Contributions to Science
At high school we learn about equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0; these are called quadratic equations. Cubic equations are of the form ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0. Naturally, cubic equations are harder to solve than quadratics.
Khayyam conjectured correctly that it is not possible to solve cubic
equations using the traditional Ancient Greek geometrical tools of
straightedge and compass. Other methods are required.
At the age of 22, in 1070, Khayyam published one of his greatest works: Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra and Balancing.
In it he showed that a cubic equation can have more than one solution.
He also showed how the intersections of conic sections such as parabolas
and circles can be utilized to yield geometric solutions of cubic
had actually started work in this field over a thousand years earlier,
when he considered the specific problem of finding the ratio of the
volume of one part of a sphere to another. Khayyam considered the
problem in a more general, methodical way.
In the language of modern mathematics, Khayyam’s solution to the equation x3 + a2x = b features a parabola of equation x2 = ay, a circle with diameter b/a2,
and a vertical line through the intersection point. The solution is
given by the distance on the x-axis between the origin and the (red)
vertical line. Image by Pieter Kuiper.
Khayyam’s solutions avoided negative coefficients and negative roots
because negative numbers were not acknowledged in Islamic mathematics.
(Some cultures, however, had incorporated negative numbers into
mathematics – for example Brahmagupta had introduced negative numbers into Indian mathematics 400 years earlier.)
Although Khayyam’s achievement was magnificent, he was personally
disappointed that he needed to utilize geometry to solve cubic equations
– he had hoped to discover an algorithm using only algebra.
Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra and Balancing established Khayyam as a mathematician of the first rank, and his reputation spread quickly throughout Persia.
Following Khayyam’s breakthrough there was little significant progress on cubic equations until 1535, when Niccolo Tartaglia found general solutions for all cubic equations.
Khayyam’s algebra was not the system of letters and signs we use
today. His algebra was expressed in words. So, where today we write:
Solve for x:
x2 + 6 = 5x
Khayyam wrote: What is the amount of a square so that when 6 dirhams
are added to it, it becomes equal to five roots of that square?
Khayyam’s work with cubics had made him certain that algebra and geometry were linked, and he cited Euclid’sElements to support the idea:
Whoever thinks algebra is a trick in obtaining unknowns
has thought it in vain. No attention should be paid to the fact that
algebra and geometry are different in appearance. Algebras are geometric
facts which are proved by Propositions 5 and 6 of Book 2 of Euclid’s Elements.
Length of Year
In 1073, Khayyam received an invitation to the Persian city of
Isfahan, capital of the Seljuk Empire, to prepare a calendar that would
work in an orderly way and be accurate forever – this was an era in
which year lengths were regularly changed.
Khayyam’s invitation came from the two most powerful men in the
Seljuk Empire, of which Persia was part: these were Malik Shah, Sultan
of the empire, and Nizam al-Mulk, his vizier.
Khayyam recruited other talented scientists to accompany him to
Isfahan in 1074. There he was paid an extraordinarily high salary and
enjoyed a privileged lifestyle. Malik Shah paid Khayyam to found an
observatory with an initial aim of making observations of the heavens
for 30 years, during which time Saturn, the most distant planet then
known, would complete an orbit.
Ptolemy’s universe – the model accepted by Omar Khayyam.
During his time in Isfahan, Khayyam measured the length of a year –
to be specific the tropical year length – with remarkable accuracy and
Khayyam found that 1,029,983 days made 2,820 years. This gives a
tropical year length of 365.2422 days to seven significant figures.
Although it has become fashionable to quote more decimal places than
this, Khayyam’s input of 1,029,983 days contains seven significant
figures, so it is unreasonable to quote more than this number of
significant figures in the calculated year length.
Today we know that the length of a tropical year actually changes by
as much as 30 minutes from year to year. The average tropical year
length quoted today is 365.242189 days, which to seven significant
figures is 365.2422 days – exactly the figure Khayyam arrived at almost a
thousand years ago. The length of a tropical year is also increasing
very slightly as time passes, although not enough between Khayyam’s era
and our own to be noticeable on a scale of seven significant figures.
Malik Shah introduced Khayyam’s new calendar in the Seljuk Empire on March 15, 1079. It was used until the 20th century.
The Parallel Postulate
The 13 books of Euclid’s Elements published in about 300 BC were probably the most influential books in the entire history of mathematics. The Elements
had been built on five geometric postulates – in other words five
things that were assumed to be true about geometry: for example, all
right angles are equal to one another.
The fifth of Euclid’s five postulates was the parallel postulate. The
parallel postulate proved to be a source of puzzlement, irritation, and
joy for mathematicians for millennia. The joy was usually short-lived,
belonging to mathematicians who thought they had proven the postulate
only to be disappointed when an error was identified in their ‘proof.’
Euclid had considered a straight line crossing two other straight
lines. He looked at the situation when the interior angles (shown in the
image below) add to less than 180 degrees. In these circumstances, he
said that the two straight lines will eventually meet on the side of the
two angles that add to less than 180 degrees.
a. When each angle is 90 degrees, the lines are parallel.
b. If one or both of the angles is less than 90 degrees, the lines will meet.
Since the time Elements was first published, mathematicians
had been trying to use Euclid’s first four postulates to prove the
parallel postulate. They were doomed to fail. We now know that it is
impossible to prove the parallel postulate using Euclid’s other
Omar Khayyam’s attempt was interesting. In his Explanations of the Difficulties in the Postulates in Euclid’s Elements he asks his readers to consider a straight line AB:
He asks his readers to consider two equal lines that are
perpendicular to AB and sees three possible arrangements, which can
produce four-sided figures:
He then refutes the possibility that angles C and/or D can be
anything other than right-angles and in the image above only the central
option is possible. So, he believes he has proven the parallel
postulate. In fact, he has not done so, all he has done is stated it in a
What is interesting to historians of mathematics is that in Khayyam’s
ideas – shown roughly in the images above – they can see the first
glimmers of non-Euclidean geometry.
Some Personal Details and the End
Full details of Khayyam’s personal life are not known. He is believed to have married and had at least one son and one daughter.
In 1092, Malik Shah and his vizier both died – the first probably by
poisoning, the second by assassination. Khayyam went into hiding during
the resulting power struggle. His survival depended on lying low. He had
been Malik Shah’s personal physician and become his close personal
friend – which had made him enemies – and Khayyam’s poetry suggests his
behavior may not have been devoutly religious – and this had also made
him enemies. Khayyam actually published no poetry in his lifetime. Some
of his musings would potentially have endangered his life.
After the power struggle, it took about 20 years for Khayyam to be
fully rehabilitated and for him to emerge again, at 64 years of age, in
the company of powerful people. However, he refused to teach. One of his
poems suggests why this might be:
The secrets which my book of love has bred,
Cannot be told for fear of loss of head;
Since none is fit to learn, or cares to know,
Tis better all my thoughts remain unsaid.
Omar Khayyam died at the age of 83 in his hometown of Nishapur on
December 4, 1131. He was buried in a tomb whose location he had chosen
in an orchard where blossom would fall twice a year.
Khayyam’s poetry was popularized in the 1800s by Edward FitzGerald’s translations in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Khayyam became so admired in the West that in 1963 the Shah of Iran had
his grave exhumed and Khayyam’s remains moved to a huge purpose-built
mausoleum in Nishapur where tourists could pay homage to the great poet.
We shall end with one of Khayyam’s most famous and evocative quatrains:
A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
And Wilderness is Paradise enow.”
Iranian tourism official Mohammad-Ebrahim Larijani said on Monday that Iran has given a priority to attract the Chinese tourists.
Mohammad-Ebrahim Larijani, the director of advertising and marketing office of the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, said, ‘One of the duties of the marketing and advertising office is tourism awareness by organizing tours to introduce Iran’s tourism capabilities and the tourist sites of the other countries.’
Iran has the largest resource bases for cultural, natural and historical sites in the world and is among the leading countries in terms of its potential for attracting foreign tourists.
He said that in order to achieve the goal, we host eight Chinese tour operators and tourism industry activists and such a procedure will continue until the end of the Iranian year.
Larijani said that Chinese tourism industry activists got acquainted with the capacities of the provinces of Tehran, Isfahan, Yazd, Fars, and East Azarbaijan, and that China is one of the first priorities of the target markets of Iran tourism industry, and their acquaintance with Iran Tourism Potentials, has a great influence on cooperation in the field of tourism.
‘Last year 11 groups of tourists, including 194 tour operators, tourism webloggers, reporter, radio broadcaster, the influential people from different target countries, visited various provinces in the country and became acquainted with the capacities of Iran’s Tourism,’ he said.
‘In the current Iranian year, we are pursuing this action with greater strength; hence, we have hosted a group of people for 11 days in May,’ he said.
The interest of the world Muslims to travel to Iran as pilgrims and pay a visit to the holy shrines and also enjoy its natural sight-seeings and tourist attractions have been the major potential of the tourism industry.
Iranian people are famous for their hospitality and all those who visit Iran appreciate the culture of hospitality Iranians show when they come across the tourists.
About 7.8 million tourists traveled to Iran in the past Iranian year, ended on March 20, 2019, registering 52.5 percent growth compared to the preceding year which was 5.1 million tourists.
”In the past Iranian year sanctions on the tourism sector were also affected by the cancellation or reduction of foreign direct flights, but fortunately the regional markets and China were placed on our agenda to attract foreign tourists and neutralized the effects,” said Ali Asghar Mounesan, the head of Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization.
Iranian textile exports rose over six percent in value and 26 percent in weight during last Iranian (ended March 20, 2019), an official said on Sunday.
‘Last year, 312,000 tons of textile and clothing products worth $1.93 billion were exported that shows a rise of nearly six percent in value and 26% in weight as compared to the preceding year’s corresponding period,” Afsaneh Mehrabi, director general of the Textile and Clothing Industry Office at the Ministry of Industry, Mine and Trade (MIMT) told IRNA on Sunday.
80,000 tons of textile floor coverings (carpets, rugs, …) worth 417 million dollars made up the bulk of the country’s last year textile exports, according to the official.
Also, Iran exported 10,000 tons of tissue paper as well as 180,000 tons of packaging materials, she noted.
Mehrabi added that Iranian textile manufacturers imported 397,000 tons of textile raw materials worth $1.120 billion during the same period, showing a reduction of 32 percent in value and 35 percent in weight. Fiber was the most imported item, she said.
Iran’s textile and clothing industry needs some $4 billion worth of raw materials, supplies and machinery, $2.5 billion of which is imported, she stressed.